Analog and Digital representations of information; Logic and arithmetic; Binary variables; Basic logic operations and gates; Essentials of Boolean algebra; Expressing a logical problem as a Boolean function; Positional number systems; Arithmetic operations; Combinational circuit design using multiplexers and gates; Sequential circuits ndash; Latches, Flip-flops, Ripple counters; Sequence generator using flip-flops; Synchronous counters; Basic constituents of a processor; Simple processor architecture.

i) translate a decision-making process into digital logic,
ii) distinguish between combinational and sequential logic,
iii) follow the architecture and operation of a simple processor,
iv) communicate to a processor through its machine language, and
v) design simple combinational and sequential logic circuits.